The Bass Space page is interesting. You can analyze the bass content of your track using this metering. It asks you to mute the bass drum and the bass to see how bassy the rest of the instruments are together. This implies you should use Levels on the master channel of your mixing project. Theoretically, it should help you keep the bass tight and clash-free.
Sometimes confused with dynamic range, the loudness range also analyzes the relation between the loudest and the quietest parts of your song. However, this is done over a longer time scale using the Loudness Unit (LU). As with dynamic range, a higher value is desirable.
This plugin is a complete loudness metering tool. It has all three kinds of LUFS (and Max values), various loudness ranges, and True Peak measurement. With the zoomable graph view, you can analyze precise details of your audio.
The plugin gives you the real-time frequency analysis of your audio, divided into three ranges: low, mid, and high, for each of which it gives separate decibel (dB) ratings, width ratings, and correlation meter ratings. Further, you can load up presets of genres like Rock, Jazz, Hip-hop, etc., for which you can compare the different frequency ranges and their energies.
Measuring dynamics will give you a good idea of how expressive and breathing your master record is. With everybody striving to sound louder, modern music has become flat and unexpressive. Checking your dynamic range and trying to keep it reasonable within the style and genre you are working with, can help you create more emotional and breathing masters.
Dynamic range compression (DRC) or simply compression is an audio signal processing operation that reduces the volume of loud sounds or amplifies quiet sounds, thus reducing or compressing an audio signal's dynamic range. Compression is commonly used in sound recording and reproduction, broadcasting, live sound reinforcement and in some instrument amplifiers.
Some compressors also have the ability to do the opposite of compression, namely expansion. Expansion increases the dynamic range of the audio signal. Like compression, expansion comes in two types, downward and upward.
Threshold timing behavior is subject to attack and release settings (see below). When the signal level goes above threshold, compressor operation is delayed by the attack setting. For an amount of time determined by the release after the input signal has fallen below the threshold, the compressor continues to apply dynamic range compression.
Compression can increase average output gain of a power amplifier by 50 to 100% with a reduced dynamic range. For paging and evacuation systems, this adds clarity under noisy circumstances and saves on the number of amplifiers required.
Compression is often used in music production to make instruments more consistent in dynamic range, so that they "sit" more nicely in the mix with the other instruments (neither disappear during short periods of time, nor overpower the other instruments during short periods). Vocal performances in rock music or pop music are compressed for the same reason.
Compression is used extensively in broadcasting to boost the perceived volume of sound while reducing the dynamic range of source audio. To avoid overmodulation, broadcasters in most countries have legal limits on instantaneous peak volume they may broadcast. Normally these limits are met by permanently inserted compression hardware in the on-air chain.
Noise reduction systems use a compressor to reduce the dynamic range of a signal for transmission or recording, expanding it afterward, a process called companding. This reduces the effects of a channel or recording medium with limited dynamic range.
Serial compression is a technique used in sound recording and mixing. Serial compression is achieved by using two fairly different compressors in a signal chain. One compressor generally stabilizes the dynamic range while the other aggressively compresses stronger peaks. This is the normal internal signal routing in common combination devices marketed as compressor-limiters, where an RMS compressor (for general gain control) is followed by a fast peak-sensing limiter (for overload protection). Done properly, even heavy serial compression can sound natural in a way not possible with a single compressor. It is most often used to even out erratic vocals and guitars.
Abstract:Presented is a single-ended potentiostat topology with a new interface connection between sensor electrodes and potentiostat circuit to avoid deviation of cell voltage and linearly convert the cell current into voltage signal. Additionally, due to the increased harmonic distortion quantity when detecting low-level sensor current, the performance of potentiostat linearity which causes the detectable current and dynamic range to be limited is relatively decreased. Thus, to alleviate these irregularities, a fully-differential potentiostat is designed with a wide output voltage swing compared to single-ended potentiostat. Two proposed potentiostats were implemented using TSMC 0.18-μm CMOS process for biomedical application. Measurement results show that the fully differential potentiostat performs relatively better in terms of linearity when measuring current from 500 pA to 10 uA. Besides, the dynamic range value can reach a value of 86 dB.Keywords: potentiostat; dynamic range; amperometric sensor; fully differential; transimpedance
Long trusted by thousands of utilities across North America, Neptune T-10® water meters are time-proven for accuracy and dependability even at low flow rates and provide a wide effective flow range for maximum revenue. The T-10 water meter is manufactured right here in America in our own foundry using proprietary technology.
Also, note that this article is extremely technical and the majority of music listeners will simply not care or roll their eyes at the technical mumbo jumbo audiophiles use. Except in the absolute worst cases, the issues of loudness and clipping may be largely unobtrusive unless you know what to listen for and have high-end speakers or at least decent-quality headphones. (The effects are particularly annoying on high-quality headphones, perhaps unsurprisingly; conversely, on all but perhaps the highest-end car stereos, the loudness war's effects will probably remain comparatively subtle except in the absolute worst cases.note The effects of dynamic range compression are usually much more immediate on headphones because the audio source is right next to your ears. With speakers, on the other hand, the left and right channels will inevitably cross their signals somewhat by the time they reach your ears, meaning that even a solid brick wall is likely to end up with some amplitude variance, particularly if you're not sitting directly between the speakers. (We told you this article was technical.) By contrast, loudness war'd albums have been known to induce headaches when played through good enough headphones; some sources have even alleged that they can contribute to hearing loss. It's a rather bizarre and unfortunate irony of the modern music industry that higher quality audio equipment will in many cases result in a less pleasant listening experience.)
It is important to distinguish between brickwall limiting, an extreme form of dynamic range compression that prevents the amplitude from exceeding a certain threshold, and digital clipping, which actually introduces digital distortion into the signal by removing the peaks and troughs from a waveform. Another important thing to note is that compressingnote namely, using ''data compression'', an entirely different concept from dynamic range compression music to a lossy format like AAC or MP3 can introduce digital clipping through intersample peaks. This can introduce clipping to heavily brickwalled material that previously did not clip at all and (needless to say) makes already clipping material sound even worse, especially at lower bitrates. (MP3 is often considered to do a worse job compressing loud music than other lossy formats such as AAC and Ogg Vorbis do, which is one reason the format has a negative reputation among audiophiles.) All of these conspired to turn audiophiles away from digital audio altogether, with many of them adopting vinyl, which helped start the "Vinyl Revival" in the late '00s.
One of the most egregious aspects of the industry's reliance on increasing loudness is that hundreds of albums that originally had good dynamic range are now being "digitally remastered" with almost completely brickwalled peak levels.note Not to mention terrible adjustments to frequency balance.
This is the main reason why people say vinyl records are "higher quality" (besides personal taste reasons such as the crackle and hum of records). The inherent quality of CDs is far better than records, but since "records are for audiophiles", there is far less incentive for audio engineers to trade-off quality for loudness on records. Additionally, vinyl records have a smaller dynamic range, which actually serves to nullify the ability to pull off loudness war stunts, even though it seems counterintuitive that this would be the case. While it's commonly believed that it's impossible to press a low-dynamic-range master to vinyl, this isn't strictly true; however, the format's limitations are of average loudness (as contrasted with digital formats, whose limitations are of peak loudness), meaning that if you want to press a low-dynamic-range master to vinyl, you will need to lower the volume to do so. If you tried to press a DR3 recording with the same loudness as it would have on CD, it would usually just throw off the needle or make the record unplayable. Since loudness war stunts will have little to no effect on a vinyl record's average loudness, this reduces the incentive to pull off such stunts; a DR10 master would stand out over a DR3 one on vinyl even more than it would on other formats, meaning that the only incentive for labels to press loudness war masters to vinyl is simply being too lazy to master the album separately (which, unfortunately, still happens fairly often). The Irony in all this, of course, is that digital formats like the CD finally made it possible to make audio as quiet as you wanted without any analog hiss obscuring it, but with a lot of equipment out there accommodating the audio levels of the War, exploiting this quality will often make things simply too quiet to hear. 2b1af7f3a8